[并非] 所有的设计都应体验友好

一起工作的产品经理将最新一期 《连线》杂志上的文章转给我,

“所以,你确定我们没有在浪费时间(只是)把界面变得更好用吗?”

读完,觉得是一篇(位)很好的魔鬼代言人(devil’s advocate),给走进易用性(ease of use)死胡同的用户体验提供了一些有意思的反面观点。

印象最深的一句话,是这条关于设计的奇葩理念

A fabulous piece of design logic: if you want to reduce accidents, install a sharp spike pointing outwards from the steering wheel of every car, aimed at the driver’s heart.

一条奇葩的设计理念:如果你想减少车祸,最有效的方法可能是,在车的方向盘上装上尖锐的针,针尖直指向驾驶者的心脏。

所谓最危险的地方往往是最安全的地方(danger may be safer)。上个月刚过世的经济学家 Gordon Tullock 穷其一生研究人们做选择的过程。他提出 ”动态平衡” 的观点,当你将一项活动的风险降到最低,人们对风险的挑战反而被最大化。用驾驶举例子,当防抱死(ABS)系统变成车的必备功能之后,人们变得更少也更迟缓的刹车。那么,把行车的危险性增大,或许是让人们变得更小心驾驶的一种有效方式。

另外,征服的过程,也会带来快感;而容易上手的界面,则带走了这种快感。

坚持用 Linux 编程(或是编辑文档)的用户和不辞辛苦的扛着好几个镜头出去旅游的人的共通之处?他(她)们从自己所掌握的比业余者更 “专业” 的技能中获得快感。这类人群(别名nerds?)的数量在过去的数年中只增不减。

他们甚至不希望工具太容易使用(zuo XD)。他们希望被挑战,在征服中获得快感。可能,只有真正读过几十页相机说明书的人,才能够照出最好的照片。

这点,在游戏设计中,显得格外重要。

没有人愿意玩一次就通关的游戏。用户希望游戏中的挑战恰到好处,最高境界是让用户意识到困难本身,和通过努力征服困难的可能性(在愤怒的小鸟中,虽然屡次小鸟打不中猪,但经过不断的练习是可以达成的目标)。

在当年大卖的 Drive 这本书中里,提出这样的问题,什么是可以激励人们的力量:至少有三种元素可以让人得到激励,并感到快乐:自主(autonomy),目的(purpose)和征服(mastery)。当你将征服的可能融入游戏设计中,用户会得到更多的快乐和成就感。

当然,征服感不仅仅存在于复杂的流程和工具中。一个好的例子是,那些寿司师傅可能用一辈子的时间来 “征服” 制作寿司的特殊刀具。

有意思的是,职业安全感(job security)是失败的产品或设计常找的一个借口。

职业安全感,来自于,当一小撮用户在花大气力掌握了某种门槛较高的技能之后,与其将此技能变得更具有普适性,更易学,他们可能会趋向于,保护既得利益,将技能的门槛砌得更高,让他们成为不可替代的人才。

好的设计通常是打破这种职业安全感的 (break the job security)。这本身就是一把双刃剑,降低的门槛在某种程度上带来的是,失业率,职业技能的贬值,以及大量非专业人群进入从前的专业领域,导致错误率上升。


设计总归无法解决所有的问题。

那么,设计需要解决的首要问题是什么?

是提高完成任务的效率,降低错误率,增加用户黏度,还是给用户提供使用中的快感?从开始学英文就知道,万年套用的公式答案永远是 it depends 😉

Usability 可以解决的问题,Un-usability 无法解决,而 Un-usability 可以解决的问题,也是不可替代的。

好像原文说到的,

Don’t get me wrong. I’m not against making things easy to use. Ease of use encourages somebody to pick up your product. But the promise of mastery ensures that they will never want to put it down。

11 thoughts on “[并非] 所有的设计都应体验友好

  1. StevenZ

    混淆了体验不友好和其它一些东西吧。。。

    “用驾驶举例子,当防抱死(ABS)系统变成车的必备功能之后,人们变得更少也更迟缓的刹车。那么,把行车的危险性增大,或许是让人们变得更小心驾驶的一种有效方式。”
    --这是驾车人对ABS熟悉后的行为优化吧,就像我知道它10米后就能停下来那为什么要在20米开始刹车。这不应该被理解成不小心驾驶的。

    “他们甚至不希望工具太容易使用(zuo XD)。他们希望被挑战,在征服中获得快感。”
    --可以说这是习惯了使用图形界面(GUI)的人对真正使用电脑作为工具发掘无限可能的人的偏见吗?照相的也躺枪。。。想像有人会从征服一个工具中获得快感?太小看使用工具的人了吧。

    “另外,征服的过程,也会带来快感;而容易上手的界面,则带走了这种快感。”
    --想征服的是世界,而不是一件工具。游戏里面的界面也是高效易用的。

    “难用”的工具的使用人群和易用的工具的使用人群根本就是两个群体。一个产品要设计成容易使用,根本目的就是要增加用户人数,而不是其它。配备ABS,手动档自动档前后的司机数量和素质都是不同的。

    最后总结一下,易用和功能丰富或者其它的一些产品目的并不是矛盾的,同时取悦小白用户和高级用户也是有可能的。最近MIUI的一句广告词就是,easy to pick up, impossible to master。

    Reply
    1. iwannasay Post author

      所谓的行为变化,很多时候是人们潜意识的行为,所谓在10米之内才刹车,也是潜意识里的安全感给人们带来的行为改变吧。

      我想作者想说的是,在10米之内才刹车,本身的危险系数就比在20米之内刹车要高得多,哪怕是好车也是越早刹车越好。

      征服,在某种程度上就已经不是把 productivity 看作第一位了;对于征服者而言,征服的本身和过程中得到的荣耀,是远大过于对工具的实际使用的。所以并非图形界面不好,而是更复杂的界面(和任务)带来的成就感更大。

      当然答案可能是,寻求挑战的人群和寻求舒适的人群,本来就是两个种类。

      我觉得至高的境界就是你提到的那句话 easy to pick up, impossible to master 🙂

      Reply
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  2. edison

    虽然主题无关,不过你说的最高境界让我突然想到游戏设计里有一种上瘾因素叫near miss,就是每过三四个关卡就要让用户有差一点点就成功的挫败感。 这个只差一点点会吸引客户觉得自己其实Good at it,只是运气不好,然后继续尝试,并且在不断重复并成功后得到快感。

    参考angry bird, candy crush, flappy bird

    Reply

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